Leaves 3-7 m long, pinnate; spines flat, linear-triangular, almost perpendicular to the leaf-sheaths, some pointing downwards; leaflets 60-75 cm x 6-8 cm. Farmers control the damage by covering the large infructescence with chicken wire. Salacca wallichiana is a very spiny species, prized for its delicious fruits with long, mostly straight leaves arching a bit at the tips shooting out of the ground. In rare instances weevils attack the growing point of the palm. After about 5-6 years the palm starts flowering. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Salacca components were methyl 3-hydroxy-3-methylpentanoate wallichiana is one of the species of the genus Salacca (25.0%) and methyl (E)-3-methylpent-2-enoate (23.4%)7. which is found in Malaya, Myanmar, Sumatra, Thailand, The snake fruit (S. edulis Reinw) Pondoh afforded methyl and Vietnam2. English name: Snakeskin fruit, snake fruit.. Other names: Sala, salak, yingan. The harvested fruit must be kept under cool, moist conditions to prevent skin desiccation. http://www.flickr.com/photos/25530364@N07/3818110267/, http://www.flickr.com/photos/xerantheum/4355037713/, http://www.palmpedia.net/wiki/index.php5?title=Salacca_wallichiana&oldid=160382, PALM SOCIETY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA (PSSC), CENTRAL FLORIDA PALM AND CYCAD SOCIETY (CFPCS). All images copyright of the artists and photographers (see images for credits). Salacca zalacca is cultivated for its excellent fruit, and fruits of other species are eaten although they are sometimes very sour. The sour unripe fruit can be a substitute for lime in cooking, whereas the ripe fruit is sweet and consumed raw. Spineless variety. However, vegetative propagation is recommended. However, a concerted research effort is required to make the dense, spiny palms more manageable and to develop post-harvest techniques which will extend the market for this special fruit. The objectives are to produce palms with the following characteristics: spineless, sparse suckering, thick fruit flesh, sweet and aromatic taste, and high yield. Roots can reach a length of 2 m but do not extend to a great depth. Flesh to seed ratios vary from 10:1 to 2:1 by weight. Some 2000 palms were moved to Phetchabun province, 300 km north of Bangkok. The fruit ripens 7-9 months after bloom. (worldagroforestrycentre.org) Editing by edric. Pollination is mainly by insects. Someone may be germinating Salacca seeds from HI in a conservatory in SO CAL or importing seedlings from HI en masse to sell locally. The salak palm grown in northern Sumatra is ascribed to a distinct species, S. sumatrana Becc. Vegetative propagation by separating rooted suckers from the mother palms is less common. World Checklist of Palms: 1-223. Leaflets are arranged in clumps along the petioles sticking out in all directions in each clump, giving a plumose appearance. Laos. Imagetext: Edible Medicinal and Non-Medicinal Plants by Dr. T. K. Lim. Salacca is a genus of about 20 species of palms native to Southeast Asia and the eastern Himalayas.[1][2]. 'Sala Noenwong' originated in Chanthaburi province from a seedling of 'Sala Mor' about 120 years ago. The temperature range required is 22-32 deg. Leaflets are arranged in clumps along the petioles sticking out in all directions in each clump, giving a plumose appearance. Leaf pruning is not advisable, but may be necessary to facilitate orchard operations. Luk rakam (Thai script: ลูกระกำ) is the fruit of another type of Salak Palm. There are three main species of salak grown commercially … It has the spiky exterior, but it is not hard to peel. The Salak (S. zalacca) or snake fruit is the species most widely grown for its fruit; the firm white pulp has a slight acidic taste. (RPS.com). Photo by Dr. Scott Zona. 12. NMR study of the dichloromethane extract of Salacca wallichiana Mart. Near Trang, Thailand. ... Salacca wallichiana is probably the hardiest species. Soil types: The palm thrives in soils ranging from sandy loam to heavy clay. 'Sala Mor' has leaves of about 4 m length with short terminal leaflets and has greyish-orange fruit with a beaked tip. Bali salak is a palm.It is native of Indonesia. One or two stems per clump are sufficient for good yield. Xenia effects are quite noticeable in S. wallichiana, so it is important to choose a compatible male strain. The other seedlings are expected to bear fruit in 1991. Seeds for sale starting at € 7.80. Like. Nong Nooch Botanical Garden, Thailand. Annual rainfall: 2500-3000 mm. A creeping and tillering palm that grows in clumps (caespitose), the creeping, unbranched stems can reach 3 - 4 metres long in plants over 100 years old with an erect terminal leaf-bearing part 1 metre tall and with many adventitious roots, most abundant towards the tip. Thailand. Collect. The fruits, which are delicious and are also sold in local markets at some places, are … On low-lying wetlands it grows better than most fruit trees. The brittle thin skin is removed to reveal yellow/white flesh which has flavours reminiscent of Granny Smith apple, strawberry and pineapple. The fruit skin is covered with regularly arranged scales that encase the sarcotesta (flesh) and seeds (Figure 4). Fruit rot sometimes occurs, especially during the rainy season. Pests: A fruit-eating worm is also found. Spineless forms exist." Breeding: Breeding work began in 1985. rice straw. This page was last modified 07:43, 3 July 2017 by. 'Sakum' has its origin somewhere in Chanthaburi or Trat provinces. A vigorous, spiny palm that is thought to originate from southern Sumatra to Java in Indonesia. (worldagroforestrycentre.org), Diseases: Some diseases and pests have been observed, but as the crop is relatively new and minor, the study of the causal organisms and their control has not yet received much attention. Growing sala cultivars is so profitable that a rapid expansion of production is to be expected. The post-harvest technology has not yet been developed. It should be noted that harvesting the palm heart of clustering species is a non-destructive practice (sustainable), unlike harvesting those of solitary species or all the terminal buds of any palm, all of which kill the plant. The taste of the fruit is somewhat musty, and somewhere in between dried bananas, jackfruit, and preserved dates. Thousands of new, high-quality pictures added every day. In young non-bearing orchards, removing suckers is the most unpleasant chore, but a must. Superior fruit-bearing forms have been developed and these are often cultivated in gardens and plantations. 2008. Chemical investigation of the dichloromethane extracts of Salacca wallichiana Mart. The colour changes to yellow at 20-23 weeks of age and to brown thereafter while the contents harden. Lewis. Its fruit has a scaly snake skin-like appearance with a crunchy apple-like texture and a sugary pineapple flavor. The fruit has a rough and scaly skin that visually resembles snake’s skin. 'Sala Mor' and 'Sala Sane' originated from rakum grown near Bangkok. Save. Snake fruit peel is normally discarded as waste. FRENCH : Coeur de palmier (vegetable). Licuala spinosa (left) and Salacca wallichiana (right) form a tunnel over trail. Palmpedia also stated that Salacca won't set viable fruit at temps below 22C. The flesh of 10-19-week-old fruits is off-white and turns to light yellow when the fruits are 20-22 weeks old; as the fruit grows it gradually assumes a more yellow-orange colour. Photo by Dr. John Dransfield, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew/Palmweb. Baker, M.M. Also called the snake fruit due to the beautiful pattern on the fruit, this is a tropical palm from Bali in Indonesia. You may also like. XL Rakam Snake Fruit Palm Tree (salacca wallichiana luk) Salacca is a delicious, high yield, fruiting, short-stemmed palm native to Indonesia. It can stand drought very well, but in the dry season irrigation is needed for a good yield. Seeds for sale starting at € 9.30. The hybrid seedlings show variable characteristics. Food: The rakum palm is grown for the edible sarcotesta of the fruit. In this risk analysis, fresh salacca fruit is defined as individual, oval shaped fruit that tapers towards the base and is rounded at the top. A tree of Bali salak. The leaves have a spiny petiole; in most species they are pinnate with numerous leaflets, but some species, notably S. magnifica, have undivided leaves. Among them are 'Sala Mor', 'Sala Sane', 'Sala Noenwong' and the spineless 'Sakum'. Rodents cause serious loss of fruit. It tends to be more rounded in shape compared to the luk sala. Photo by Frank (Tropico), Manuel Antonio, Costa Rica. In Thailand, another species of snakefruit known as "Salacca wallichiana" is preferred. Image Text: Dr. Andrew J. Henderson. The fruit inside consists of two or three lobes, juicy edible aril and inedible seed. Genetic resources: A germplasm collection is being assembled at the Chanthaburi Horticulture Research Centre. The spineless 'Sakum' has leaves nearly as long (5 m) as the rakum types and the fruit quality is not much better: there is only a little flesh covering the large stones. In Thailand snake fruit is widespread, popular as a snack on the streets, and it is called there Luk rakam, Rakum Palm. (www.worldagroforestry.org). Male inflorescences about 1 m long, branching into many reddish spadices; flowers with 3 sepals, 3 petals and 5 stamens; anthers with functional yellowish pollen; female inflorescences 1-2 m long, with 3-8 reddish spadices, each with staminate and hermaphrodite flowers in 1:1 ratio, both without functional pollen; staminate flowers with a reddish, tubular corolla and 5 staminodes borne on the corolla throat; hermaphrodite flowers with 3 pink sepals, fused at the base, ovary trilocular, hairy, with a short, trifid dark red stigma, staminodes 5-6, borne on the corolla throat. Other products: Wild clumps in the forest not only produce food, but are also a major source of cork, thatch and other construction materials in rural areas. early in the dry season. C; lower temperatures reduce flowering. Phonetic spelling of Latin names by edric. The leafelts are lancelote to ovoid and drooping a bit. This is a tillering palm, it exhibits saxophone style root growth (it has a heel), keep top third of heel above soil elevation! (Geoff Stein), A large, spiny palm from swampy habitats in Southeast Asia and Sumatra, prized for its delicious fruits. The skin of the snakefruit has a unique texture not unlike that of a snake's skin, rough to the touch in one direction but smooth in the other. Selection in the rakum palms has given rise to the sala group of cultivars of superior quality. There are 21 species and four varieties of Salacca (Rangsiruji et al., 2006).In Thailand, the salak is cultivated in the eastern and southern parts of the country and the main commercial species grown are S. wallichiana Mart and S. rumphii, known as Rakam and Sala, respectively, by Thais (Dangcham, 1999, Thangjatuporn, 2000) (). Loose packing would be the best way to handle the fruit. Although this will bring the price down, there is still much room for agronomic improvement which will raise yield levels and/or reduce the cost price. The sala cultivars do not grow as large as the rakum types, e.g. Thailand. Yield: The average yield of S. wallichiana varies from 6 to 12 t/ha per year depending on cultivars. Salacca affinis Griff.. ENGLISH : Edible-fruited salak palm , Palm heart (vegetable). In palms over 100 years old, the creeping stem can reach 3-4 m, with an erect terminal leaf-bearing part 1 m tall and with many adventitious roots, most abundant towards the tip. This means that good growers could obtain US$ 100-130 per palm per year. There is no commercial processing of rakum so far. (worldagroforestrycentre.org), Harvesting: In Thailand June and July are the peak harvest months for rakum; the harvest tails off towards November. Irrigation in the dry season, together with application of manure and 3-4 kg per clump of a complete fertilizer with a low N-content improves yield and fruit quality considerably. Govaerts, R. & Dransfield, J. The plantlets are separated from the stem and nursed in polythene bags for a year before planting out in the field at the beginning of the rainy season. There may also be prospects for the crop elsewhere in South-East Asia under similar ecological conditions. The cross of sala x 'Sakum' yielded almost 50% spineless seedlings. Locally known as “sala,” this variety is similar in taste but with less astringency and a juicy texture. Dense clumps yield poorly and are difficult to harvest. The taste of the luk rakam is also more watery.". Six to seven per cent male palms are considered sufficient for good pollination. Fruits over 30 weeks old develop an unpleasant flavour. Special thanks to Geoff Stein, (Palmbob) for his hundreds of photos. (worldagroforestrycentre.org), Boundary or barrier or support: The wild form is grown as a fruit-bearing fence. This exotic fruit has diverse and potential pharmacological properties due to its high antioxidant content. Fruit is normally sub globose to ellipsoid drupe, 15–40 per spadix, measuring 5–7 cm by 5 cm, tapering towards base and rounded at the top. This indicates a heavy fruit set in November and December, i.e. Salacca zalacca (Gaertn.) Asmussen-Lange, W.J. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. In its natural habitat and in mixed orchards rakum is commonly found under shade. For sweet fruit taste rakum should be harvested 28 weeks after anthesis (hand pollination). Seeds 1-3, covered with a fleshy sarcotesta. is a tropical fruit produced in Indonesia. Family: Arecaceae. The stones in 10-19-week-old fruits are white and contain a jelly-like substance. (worldagroforestrycentre.org). (worldagroforestrycentre.org), Propagation methods: Fresh seed germinates readily and propagation from seed is easy, have a high germination rate (90%) and emerge in less than 10 days, but the rate decreases after storage. The common English name is snake fruit, but people in Indonesia call it Salak, maybe because of its scientific name (salacca). #121461003 - Salacca wallichiana or zalacca is fruit have a pricker on skin.. A rotary grass cutter or herbicides (Glyphosate) are commonly used to control weeds. The soil is kept moist to force viable buds on the cuttings to sprout. Photo by Dr. John Dransfield, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew/Palmweb. led to the isolation of monogalactosyl diacylglycerols ( 1 ), β-sitosteryl-3β-glucopyranoside-6 - O -fatty acid esters ( 2 ), β-sitosterol ( 3 ) and triacylglycerols ( 4 ) from leaves of 'Sala Noenwong' reach only 3 m. 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